Biological environment definition is - the natural biological factors (such as wild animals and plants or bacteria) that affect human life (as in a particular place or period). In this article, we will venture on the biological theories and brain structures associated to learning and memory. The biological perspective of psychology is based on the assumption that behaviour is biologically determined. A criticism of the social learning theory is also that it does not take into account the physical and mental changes which a child undergoes as they mature. To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below: If you are the original writer of this essay and no longer wish to have your work published on UKEssays.com then please: Our academic writing and marking services can help you! biological learning. On the other hand, more efficient methods of demonstrating that aggression in children is an inherited behaviour is emphasised by other research methodologies such as twin studies. Grivas.J, Carter. A biological is a drug, such as a vaccine, that is derived from a living organism. Reference this. It is based on many experimental studies which are conducted in laboratory conditions in order to eliminate any environmental influences on the findings. Thus, it has overlooked other leading causes of the development of aggression including the children’s upbringing and home environment. The role of LTP in learning is still being researched, but studies on the hippocampus have found LTP to occur during associative learning (such as classical conditioning ). According to Berkowitz (1975) aggression is any behaviour which causes intentional harm to another person. The Effectiveness of food-based enrichment on Sumatran tigers (Panthera tigris) at Adelaide Zoo The Animal I have chosen is SUMARTRAN TIGERS. Certain parts of the brain have been found to be responsible for the development of aggression in children. Such learning, by drawing on the full range of a learner's experience, strengthens the individual's ability both to find novel connections and to harness peripheral perception. Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical processes, molecular interactions, physiological mechanisms, development and evolution. The hypothalamus and amygdala can be manipulated using electrical currents, and they may be switched on or off disabling their normal operation using an electrode. The structure of the hypothalamus and the amygdala located within the brain are a leading biological cause of aggressive behaviour. You'll recognize the root "bio-," meaning "life," as in biography — the story of someone's life — and biology … OpenStax College, Communication Between Neurons. In a study conducted at the National Institute of Mental Health (Bethasda MD), a positive correlation was found between low levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin and the levels of aggression in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (Mitsis.E et al, 2000). However, the learning perspective views aggression as being unrelated to genes, rather aggression is learnt. It clearly highlights how certain behaviours, particularly aggression, can be learned by the observation of others. The frustration aggression theory suggests that frustration is the main factor which contributes to aggression. This investigation is an evaluation of the biological and learning perspectives of psychology accounting for the development of aggression in children. ‘Transmission of aggression through imitation of aggressive models’. The learning perspective also denies some very important mental processes which also result in the development of aggression in children. ; 40:751-756. The results indicated that aggressive behaviour was only partly inherited, and that environmental factors played an equally contributing role. biological definition: 1. connected with the natural processes of living things: 2. related by birth: 3. used to…. Many of the theories and case studies that have been put forward to support the hypothesis that aggression in children is biologically determined will be discussed in further detail. This twin study is clearly indicative of the inheritance of aggressive behaviour, yet it cannot be claimed that inheritance is the only key factor which causes aggressive behaviour or the tendency to be aggressive in children. July 24, 2015. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 211-218, Bandura, A, Ross, D. and Ross, S.A (1961). Popova N, Voitenko N, Kulikov A, Avgustinovich D (1991). In another study conducted by Russian researchers, silver foxes were studied. Both the biological perspective and learning perspective are based on evidence and practical studies which have been conducted. This essay is an evaluation of the biological perspective and learning perspective of psychology accounting for the development of aggression in children. The underlying principle of this assumption suggests that aggression in children does not purely develop as a result of biological factors, rather it accounts for a very minor part. Learning Objectives. Baron. Definition of biological adjective in Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary. (23rd April 2000). However, using animals to demonstrate the link between childhood aggression and biological factors is also beneficial. Under biological needs he included oxygen, water, food, and the need for eliminating waste. It is a form of non-associative learning that does not require conscious motivation or awareness. *You can also browse our support articles here >. The analysis of biological networks … This is one of the main weaknesses which the biological perspective incorporates. These mice had a practical advantage over humans because these species have a short gestation period, which is essential as aggressive behaviour can be monitored over successive generations in a short period of time. Our academic experts are ready and waiting to assist with any writing project you may have. domestic violence textual analysis high school vs college the heart of darkness university of central florida concept environmental problems gender inequality american dream nhs college proposal identity is college worth it terrorism. It is my curiosity and eagerness to discover more about the development of aggression from two opposing views, these being the biological and learning, which have motivated me to undertake this research topic for my extended essay. As the stimulus occurs over and over (and as long as it is not associated with any reward or punishment), we learn not to focus our attention on it. See more. Biological predisposition is commonly known as someone's 'nature', as opposed to their 'nurture', or upbringing. Australia: John Wiley & Sons. A diagram of the General Adaptation Syndrome model.. Biological definition, pertaining to the science and application of biology: the biological substrata; conducting biological tests. We've received widespread press coverage since 2003, Your UKEssays purchase is secure and we're rated 4.4/5 on reviews.co.uk. A biological is a drug, such as a vaccine, that is derived from a living organism. Therefore, aggression in children, according to the biological perspective, is considered to be an innate behaviour. Supplementary biological factors which cause aggression are low levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin, as well as certain brain structures such as the hypothalamus and amygdala, that when manipulated, may result in aggressive behaviour. Company Registration No: 4964706. biological learning Essay Examples. October 26, 2013. CC licensed content, Specific attribution, http://psychology.wikia.com/wiki/Sensitization, http://psychology.wikia.com/wiki/Habituation, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Long-term_potentiation, http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/neurotransmitter, http://cnx.org/contents/72cfcf6f-e196-4e0b-9bcf-45f4853993e4@5/How-Neurons-Communicate, http://cnx.org/contents/4abf04bf-93a0-45c3-9cbc-2cefd46e68cc@4.100:34/Psychology, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hebbian_theory, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stress_(biology)%23/media/File:General_Adaptation_Syndrome.jpg, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Neuronal_Synapse.jpg, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Neuron_-_annotated.svg. Biology is the study of life and living organisms, from one-celled creatures to the most complex living organism of all — the human being. Parents may also choose to put their child in a hobby that is sports oriented to cater for the aggressive levels in order to use their energy in a positive way, where they stimulate thinking and reasoning skills preventing the child from resorting to aggressive acts. However, a collective understanding and strong evaluation of both the biological and learning perspective has led to a stronger foundation of understanding childhood aggression. Albert Bandura’s Bobo Doll experiment highlights the role of observation in children’s learning. Once they have been engaged in aggressive acts it impacts on the children emotionally, and as a consequence these children find it much easier and acceptable to engage in violence and aggressive acts. The structure of a neuron: Communication between neurons occurs when the neurotransmitter is released from the axon on one neuron, travels across the synapse, and is taken in by the dendrite on an adjacent neuron. Mice species have differing logic and reasoning capacities as compared to humans, hence mice do not facilitate the opportunity to choose to be aggressive or not, whereas children have the capability of logically choosing to act aggressively. If a shock is given following the sound, then the next time the sound occurs, the individual will subsequently react even more strongly to the sound. Twin studies suggest that aggression in children is an inherited trait passed on from parents to their offspring. Hence, all additional differences in their behaviour are accounted by their environment and experiences as an individual. The controlled conditioned group of the children were allowed to immediately play with the toys. This provides the basis of explaining aggressive behaviour in children from the learning perspective. Another potential weakness is the fact that the children may have not been exposed to the Bobo doll previously, hence they did not know how to play with it. The biological perspective can be criticised on the basis that aggression in children cannot be related to studies that have been conducted on animals. of or relating to biology or to life and living processes; used in or produced by applied … D.C (1994). He also found that when parts of the hypothalamus were removed the sham rage disappeared, clearly demonstrating that the manipulation of the hypothalamus and cortex plays a role in the development of aggression. October 26, 2013. From simple essay plans, through to full dissertations, you can guarantee we have a service perfectly matched to your needs. Correspondingly, the findings of all studies conducted cannot be generalised to all children. The U.S and Japanese children named their favourite video games and how often they played. The learning perspective argues that aggressive behaviour is learnt through observation, and triggered by the surrounding environment and conditions. Human Aggression (2nd ed.). However, the learning perspective views aggression in children as having some sort of biological basis, yet through experience and reinforcement aggression becomes learned and evident amongst children. University of Iowa Studies in Child Welfare, 18, 1-314. The biological perspective tends to stress the importance of nature. Anne, H. (2009). Similar to Dollard’s findings (1939), it was observed from this conducted study that the children who were frustrated because they had to wait before being exposed to the toys, played aggressively with the toys by smashing and stomping on them. The opposite of LTP is long-term depression (LTD), which produces a long-lasting decrease in synaptic strength. Through further investigation, the effect of cognitive and mental processes may now be evaluated to determine their influence on childhood aggression which will lead to educational programs being implemented in schools and for the general society. Differentiate among habituation, sensitization, and long-term potentiation. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); Potentiation, habituation, and sensitization are three ways in which stimuli in the environment produce changes in the nervous system. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. This hypothesis suggests that frustration accounts for all aggressive acts. Despite the complexity of the science, certain unifying concepts consolidate it into a single, coherent field. It has many practical applications which have been effective in explaining the development of aggressive behaviour. Do you have a 2:1 degree or higher? ‘Frustration-aggression hypothesis: Examination and reformulation’. The learning perspective does not incorporate any biological or cognitive processes which are also responsible for the development of aggression. Twin studies are very useful for the reason that identical twins are monozygotic, and their genetic makeup is identical. Long-term potentiation is based on the principle that “cells that fire together, wire together,” and is widely considered one of the major cellular mechanisms that underlies learning and memory. This essay was specifically an evaluation of the biological and learning perspectives of psychology accounting for the development of aggression in children. Biologicals are drugs derived from living cells and cultivated in a laboratory. For instance when a child is prevented from taking a course of action or possessing something it is most likely believed that the child will become aggressive; occurring as a result of being frustrated. New Haven CN: Yale University Press. A criticism of this research is that it is not ecological – the children may have not acted aggressively towards any human in real life. The learning perspective suggests that children who play violent video games such as Doom, Wolfenstein 3D or Mortal Combat and others often experience aggressive behaviour, either physically or verbally. Habituation, Sensitization, and Potentiation. Biological Basis of Learning. He induced pain by placing the participant’s hands in cold or warm water while they distributed rewards and punishments to a partner. It simplifies the occurrence of certain behaviours, especially aggression, into a few steps. Barker, R. Dembo,T, and Lewin K. (1941). In other words, habituation is when we learn not to respond to a stimulus that is presented repeatedly without change. Dr. Anderson of Iowa State University in Ames and his colleagues found that in the U.S and Japan, Japanese and American children who played violent video games demonstrated more aggressive behaviour months later compared to their peers who didn’t. Yet, this can be a starting point to understanding the basis of aggressive behaviour. ‘Frustration and aggression: An experiment with young children’. For example, if a loud sound is suddenly heard, an individual may startle at that sound. It is essentially an exaggerated startle response, and is often seen in trauma survivors. Many theories have been driven by findings from research on animals, which highlight that there is some genetic aspect to aggression. The above experiments are of considerable value as the foxes could be trained and kept over an extended period of time where their behaviour is closely observed, unlike humans who cannot be kept in such environments. Evaluation of the biological perspective ix, Evaluation of the learning perspective xv. Philadelphia: Open University Press. Once again, this research could be criticised on the grounds that it is difficult to associate these findings to children as they are different beings. Dr. Craig A. Anderson, Ph.D. (2000) states, ‘This medium is potentially more dangerous than exposure to violent television and movies’. In this experiment Bandura examined the consequential actions of children observing an adult behaving aggressively with a Bobo doll. From the results it was found that the children from each group who were exposed to more violent video games were much more aggressive than those who were less exposed. J.H. Hillsdale, IL: Dryden Press. The learning perspective is established on the basis that although everyone is born with a genetic endowment which is the root of instinctual behaviours, the majority of behaviour is learnt from the environment. During habituation, fewer neurotransmitters are released at the synapse. ‘On emotional expression after decortication, with some remarks on certain theoretical views’. Weiten, W. (2007). However, this experiment raises the possibility that children may have thought that this experiment was a game as a consequence of the Bobo doll having a spring which causes it to spring back immediately after being knocked down. From this it is clearly evident that both the biological perspective and learning perspective account for and contribute to the development of aggression in children as it is difficult to isolate the contributing factors. Please refer to an authoritative source if you require up-to-date information on any health or medical issue. One of the major debates in psychology has long centered over the relative contributions of nature versus nurture. Differentiate among habituation, sensitization, and long-term potentiation. Plenum Publishing. OpenStax College, How Neurons Communicate. This examination investigates the origins of childhood aggression and evaluates two differing perspectives, these being the biological and learning perspective, and collectively concludes that there are various factors which contribute to a child acting aggressively. Children were the subject as they are less socially conditioned unlike adults. However, the location of the experiments is not only a strength but also a potential weakness. Alarming news articles and reports focus on aggressive acts. Thus, this weakness does not implicate that such laboratory experiments are invaluable; rather they are limited to generalisabilty. Alarming articles and studies have revealed that violent video games are linked to aggressive behaviour amongst children. So please use only one of these titles. biological definition: 1. relating to the study of living things such as plants and animals: 2. using living things or…. In contrast, the children who were exposed to the non-aggressive model showed no or very little aggressive behaviour. It was found that those foxes which had been bred for over 30 years for domestic behaviour, showed no defensive reactions to humans because they had high levels of serotonin in various structures of the brain, compared to the foxes which had been bred without freedom (Popova et al, 1991). Sensitization is the strengthening of a neurological response to a stimulus due to the response to a secondary stimulus. Biological development, the progressive changes in size, shape, and function during the life of an organism by which its genetic potentials (genotype) are translated into functioning mature systems (phenotype).Most modern philosophical outlooks would consider that development of some kind or other characterizes all things, in both the physical and biological worlds. Bard found that when parts of the cortex were removed from the cats, they displayed ‘sham rage’ where the cats acted aggressively. Bandura had other children watch a non aggressive model playing calmly with the Bobo doll. In Anderson’s study, 181 Japanese students aged between 12 and 15 years old and 364 U.S. children aged between 9 and12 years old were tested. These studies clearly highlight the role which serotonin plays in causing aggressive behaviour amongst children; the lower the levels of serotonin the higher the level of aggression. A biological is a drug, such as a vaccine, that is derived from a living organism. However, positive correlations between real life situations can be drawn, highlighting that laboratory studies are considerably useful. GCSE education materials, experiments, PowerPoint presentations, biological drawings, insect life-cycles, fish, birds, amphibia, amoeba, study & revision aids, Key stage 3-4 & IGCSE, and books Selective breeding has been one of the longest existing methods to find the existence of a phenotypic characteristic. A biological network is any network that applies to biological systems.A network is any system with sub-units that are linked into a whole, such as species units linked into a whole food web.Biological networks provide a mathematical representation of connections found in ecological, evolutionary, and physiological studies, such as neural networks. Similarly, there is always some sort of connection that can be drawn between animals and humans, therefore using animals can be a starting point to understanding the biological bases of aggression in children. (2000). Potentiation, habituation, and sensitization are three ways in which stimuli in the environment produce changes in the nervous system. Biology is subdivided into separate branches for convenience of study, though all the subdivisions are interrelated by basic principles. Violent video games linked to child aggression. We use cookies to enhance your experience on our website, including to provide targeted advertising and track usage. A significant contribution of this selective breeding experiment is its illustration of a genetic basis of aggression and how it can be passed onto the offspring. Psychology Caspi, A. Plomin, R., Corley, A, Fulker, D.W, & DeFries, J.C. (1998). “Potentiation” refers to a strengthening of a nerve synapse. When considering the learning perspective and environmental determinants of aggression in children there are key factors which play an essential role. 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