His work set the tone for much of the seventeenth century, as his students used it as a springboard for developing their own styles (1974.290.43). The carpets and textiles were created in workshops set up under state patronage. There are extant Tati and Persian poetry from Shaykh Safi ad-din Ardabili as well as extant Persian poetry from Shaykh Sadr ad-din. In the seventeenth century, Shah Abbas I (r. 1587–1629) centralized the Iranian economy by developing a state monopoly over the silk trade, controlling production in the Caspian provinces, where the bulk of the raw material was produced. London: British Museum Press, 1995. During the early Safavid period under the reigns of Shah Isma‘il I (r. 1501–24) and his son, Shah Tahmasp (r. 1524–76), court fashions were evident in the detailed paintings in the Shahnama of Tahmasp and other illustrated royal manuscripts. Their capitals were Tabriz, Qazvin, Isfahan. Style in the courts became increasingly Westernized as shorter, tailored garments with stiff fabrics replaced loose layers of silk, and the fine details of earlier textiles gave way to more static compositions. In the Safavid empire, Shah ‘Abbas was the most distinguished rulers and patron of the arts. • In architecture, they commissioned mosques and palace complexes, restored major shrines, and contributed to sites of pilgrimage. Although the Safavids are of Iranian origin, they claimed they were descended from the prophet Muhammad. Sulayman (r. 1666—94) commissioned two further palaces, the Hasht Bihisht and the Talar-i Ashraf. Books: Canby, Sheila R. Persian Painting. Shah ‘Abbas implemented an aggressive export program for these luxury textiles, encouraged by elaborate gifts of silk garments and sent to heads of state for distribution throughout their courts. If you are the copyright owner and would like this content removed from factsanddetails.com, please contact me. Headwear for women around 1600 consisted of a square cloth or chahar-qad, placed on the crown of the head and fastened with a thin ribbon of silk, and sometimes accompanied by a chin strap made of a string of pearls or gems. These workshops were an innovative adaptation to meet the needs of the increasing attention to art and trade during this period. It was an Iranian dynasty of Kurdish origin, but during their rule they intermarried with Turkoman, Georgian, Circassian, and Pontic Greek dignitaries. Such material is made available in an effort to advance understanding of country or topic discussed in the article. Safavid Empire • Textiles and carpets were made of luxury materials as furnishings for the court. Paris: Harmattan, 1999. In the paintings, the outermost garment for both men and women consists of a long robe that alternately crosses over in the front and fastens to one side, or parts down the front. Nazanin Hedayat Munroe of the Metropolitan Museum of Art wrote: “Safavid textiles are praised as the pinnacle of Iranian loom weaving. Exhibition catalogue.. Washington, D.C.: Textile Museum, 1987.Floor, Willem The Persian Textile Industry in Historical Perspective, 1500–1925. The Safavid dynasty had its origin in the Safavid order of Sufism, which was established in the city of Ardabil in the Iranian Azerbaijan region. The textile industry consisted of urban workshops producing textiles independently, provincial centers focusing on rug weaving, and small farms cultivating silk in the Caspian region. Carpet weaving was transformed from a craft practiced by nomads and peasants into a national industry, with designs drafted by professional artists in the court workshops (50.190.1). Books: Holod, Renata, ed. This constitutes 'fair use' of any such copyrighted material as provided for in section 107 of the US Copyright Law. Some of the finest examples of figural silks produced during the reign of Shah Abbas feature characters from popular literature such as the lovers Khusrau and Shirin (1978.60) and Layla and Majnun (46.156.7) from Nizami's Khamsa, or battle scenes referencing the herculean Rustam in Firdausi's Shahnama. In addition, artists were no longer dependent on the royal workshop for employment. Figures on textiles made from the early seventeenth century onward reflect the changing fashions, as the taj haydari was replaced by a wide, elliptical turban. Books: Baker, Patricia L. “Safavid Splendor.” In Islamic Textiles. He then relocated the Armenians from the city of Julfa, who controlled much of the Persian end of a bustling international silk trade, to a neighborhood in Isfahan called New Julfa and gave them the monopoly on silk exports. Private workshops in urban centers such as Yazd and Kashan continued to produce textiles for sale within and beyond Iranian borders, and are especially known for velvet and lampas-woven luxury silks.\^/, “Figural designs relied heavily on manuscript illustration for composition and subject matter. The Safavid family was a literate family from its early origin. Although the Safavids are of Iranian origin, they claimed they were descended from the prophet Muhammad. From their base in Ardabil, the Safavids established control over parts of Greater Iran and reasserted the Iranian identityof the regio… [Source: Suzan Yalman, Institute of Fine Arts, New York University, Metropolitan Museum of Art metmuseum.org \^/], “Abbas reinforced the image of the Safavid polity with the architecture of his new capital. Complex designs were created using the lampas technique, a compound structure that allowed for figural and floral designs to be produced in fluid lines with a range of delicate colors. His commission of a Shahnama reestablished the royal painting atelier that had shrunk during the reigns of his two predecessors. Before the Safavid empire took power most of the Iranian population were Sunni. \^/, “In addition to figural silks, popular designs included stylized flowers with delicate drawings of deer, rabbits, and birds, and particularly the rose-and-nightingale (gul-o-bul-bul) motif (49.32.99). In order to revive the national economy, Abbas courted foreign traders and made commercial agreements with several European nations. As a result, single-page paintings, less costly than fully illustrated manuscripts, became popular. Shah Abbas helped create a Safavid culture. His successors were ill-prepared to rule and cities such as Shiraz rose to prominence as regional rulers became more powerful. Shah Abbas 1571 - 1629 Ruled during Safavid Golden Age Rebuilt Isfahan Borrowed from European, Ottoman, Persian, & Chinese Culture 5. Welch, Anthony. This unique headdress represented the Shici ideology of the Safavid dynasty, with the twelve folds of the turban symbolizing the imams in Twelver Shiism. Glimpses of Safavid Fashion in the Sixteenth Century.” In Hunt for Paradise: Court Arts of Safavid Iran, edited by Sheila Canby and Jon Thompson, pp. Album pages by Riza-yi ‘Abbasi, court painter for Shah ‘Abbas, depict lovers and youths dressed in loose, layered clothing with vibrant patterns. The resulting overall ensemble of garments created an opulent and elegant look for both men and women, as depicted in paintings and tilework and in illustrated travelogues by European visitors to Iran. In The four bases of the Safavid state—religion, trade, military, and the royal family itself—were thus united in one monumental visual statement.\^/, “Jean Chardin, a French jeweler who traveled throughout Iran in 1664–70 and again in 1671–77, exclaimed that Isfahan was "the greatest and most beautiful town in the whole Orient." They were originally a religious brotherhood who became more powerful because of warlords and political marriages. The Safavids were named after their founder Safi al-Din, who died in 1334. The á¹¢afavid period, like the Ottoman era, was an imperial age, and therefore there is hardly a part of Iran where either á¹¢afavid buildings or major á¹¢afavid restorations cannot be found. Ghiyath was best known for his small-scale figural and floral designs, and enjoyed a privileged relationship with the court of Shah Abbas. \^/, “These legendary characters are often represented on textiles in contemporary Safavid dress, with men sporting turbans wound around a central oblong baton (taj haydari) (52.20.11). Fashion in the Golden Era of Shah ‘Abbas (1587–1625), Nazanin Hedayat Munroe of the Metropolitan Museum of Art wrote: “The true flowering of Persian art across all disciplines occurred under the patronage of Shah ‘Abbas I (r. 1587–1625). : Society for Iranian Studies, 1974. Abbas also created a new standing army which halted the encroachments of the Mughals and the Ottomans and restabilized the country's territories. . The many prints, illustrated books, and oil paintings they brought provided new inspiration for artists in Iran. The images are brought to life in the memoirs of Michele Membré, a Venetian envoy who visited the court of Tahmasp in 1539–42, and English merchant Anthony Jenkinson in 1561–62. \^/, “The popularity of color, weave structure, and iconography are noted in English East India Company documents, and commented upon by European visitors including Englishmen Robert and Anthony Sherley and Italian traveler Pietro Della Valle, who visited the court of ‘Abbas in the first quarter of the seventeenth century. “The political ideology of the Safavids was manifested in the headgear of its rulers. CULTURE WITHIN THE SAFAVID FAMILY. He hired people from different countries to work in the government. [Source: Nazanin Hedayat Munroe, Department of Islamic Art, , Metropolitan Museum of Art metmuseum.org \^/], “Under the reign of Shah Tahmasp (1524–76), royal workshops were established primarily to service the court, while raw silk continued to be produced and sold to the state by independent producers from northern provinces such as Gilan. The technical skill of designers in this period is evident in the thin dark outlines that delineate the figures and accompanying motifs, and the seamless repeats throughout the cloth. Although many of the richly woven silk garments of the period are only accessible now as fragments, the tailored shapes suggest that they were once part of the decorative garments worn throughout Iran and sent as diplomatic gifts to Europe and India. Floral designs are often presented within a lattice framework, accompanied by birds and foliate designs. He also brought members of Christian religious orders into the empire. 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